Endometrial cytology and transrectal ultrasonography in diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in postpartum crossbred cattle
H. N. N. Nithish, C. Jayakumar, Shibu Simon, R.S. Abhilash and Jith John Mathew
Postpartum diseases of uterus represent a foremost predicament in cattle farms affecting reproductive efficiency. Postpartum (PP) uterine diseases include metritis, endometritis and subclinical endometritis (SCE). Barring SCE, all other diseases project the clinical signs. Diagnosis of SCE at the early stage of PP has been a challenging task for many veterinarians. The present study aimed to validate and correlate the proficiency of transitional changes in uterus and cervix assessed by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and endometrial cytology (EC) in the diagnosis of SCE in PP cattle. The research was carried out in two phases i.e, 30th day postpartum (DPP) (n=74) and first exhibited oestrus after 45th DPP (n=24) (54.63 ± 1.13 d) to emphasise the proficiency of both the diagnostic modalities. Endometrial cytology could discriminate between cows positive and negative for SCE significantly at 30th DPP (20.54 ± 0.48 vs 5.55 ± 0.41). It was potent in diagnosing SCE after 45th DPP also, as a significant reduction in the per cent of PMN cells (20.54 ± 0.48 to 7.56 ± 0.32) was noticed. Uterine parameters assessed by TRUS like cervical and uterine diameter and endometrial thickness in both the phases of assessment did not correlate to the EC changes and also could not discriminate between SCE positive and negative animals. The results of the study signify that EC is efficacious in the diagnosis of SCE in cows, while TRUS is impractical as a sole diagnostic modality for SCE.
Keywords: Subclinical endometritis, endometrial cytology, transrectal ultrasonography