Pathophysiological mechanisms of alcoholic myopathy - Lessons from rodent models
Danielle E. Levitt, Patricia E. Molina and Liz Simon
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.2021.52 (2):107-116.
Danielle E. Levitt: Postdoctoral fellow, Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido Street, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA 70112.
Patricia E. Molina: Professor and Chair, Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido Street, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA 70112.
Liz Simon: Associate Professor, Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido Street, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA 70112.
Received: 07.12.2020, Accepted: 01.01.2021, Published online: 01.06.2021
Corresponding author: Liz Simon
Citation: Levitt, D. E., Molina, P. E. and Simon, L. 2021. Pathophysiological mechanisms of alcoholic myopathy: Lessons from rodent models. J. Vet. Ani. Sci. 52 (2): 107-116. https://doi.org/10.51966/jvas.2021.52.2.107-116
Skeletal muscle dysfunction is highly prevalent and is one of the earliest pathological tissue changes among people with at-risk alcohol use. Clinical studies to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms of alcohol-mediated muscle disease are hampered due to ethical considerations, and confounded by nutritional, lifestyle, and comorbid conditions. Rodent models have been developed to study the impact of at-risk alcohol consumption and alcohol-mediated end organ injury, including skeletal muscle dysfunction. This review discusses results from well-established rodent models of alcohol administration and highlights key pathophysiological mechanisms underlying alcoholic myopathy identified in rodent models. Salient pathways include impaired regenerative capacity, altered anabolic/catabolic balance, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetic function, and skeletal muscle morphological and contractile changes.
Key words: Alcohol, Muscle, Protein synthesis, Stem cell regeneration, Mitochondria