Pathophysiological mechanisms of alcoholic myopathy - Lessons from rodent models
Danielle E. Levitt, Patricia E. Molina and Liz Simon
Skeletal muscle dysfunction is highly prevalent and is one of the earliest pathological tissue changes among people with at-risk alcohol use. Clinical studies to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms of alcohol-mediated muscle disease are hampered due to ethical considerations, and confounded by nutritional, lifestyle, and comorbid conditions. Rodent models have been developed to study the impact of at-risk alcohol consumption and alcohol-mediated end organ injury, including skeletal muscle dysfunction. This review discusses results from well-established rodent models of alcohol administration and highlights key pathophysiological mechanisms underlying alcoholic myopathy identified in rodent models. Salient pathways include impaired regenerative capacity, altered anabolic/catabolic balance, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetic function, and skeletal muscle morphological and contractile changes.
Key words: Alcohol, Muscle, Protein synthesis, Stem cell regeneration, Mitochondria