Conventional and molecular diagnosis of Campylobacteriosis associated with bovine abortion
N. Aiswarya, Binu K. Mani, M. Mini, Surya Sankar and M. P. Unnikrishnan
Campylobacteriosis is responsible for genital tract infections of beef and dairy herds, causing a significant economic loss in livestock sector. Campylobacter foetus species is one of the important pathogens because of its potential impact in Veterinary and Human health. This study was designed to determine the regional incidence of C. foetus infection in Kerala, India by isolation, detection of C. foetus in clinical samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), real time PCR (qPCR), and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the detection of C. foetus antibodies in sera of bovines with the history of abortion/infertility. Clinical samples (aborted materials (50), serum (50), Cervico-Vaginal Mucus (CVM) (30) and semen samples (30)) from a total of 160 cattle and buffaloes with the history of abortion and infertility were collected. Aborted materials including placenta, foetal membranes, liver, lungs and stomach contents of the aborted foetus, semen and CVM samples were processed and subjected to isolation and identification of Campylobacter foetus subsp. foetus (Cff) and Campylobacter foetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and molecular confirmation by PCR and qPCR respectively. Serum samples from aborted dams were tested using indirect ELISA. All the suspected clinical samples were found negative for Cff and Cfv on both culturing and PCR. All the serum samples tested were negative by ELISA as well. Conclusively the study indicated the infection of C. foetus spp. responsible for abortion in bovine are rare in the location where the study was conducted, which might be due to insignificant endemic levels. As per the breeding policy, only artificial insemination is practiced in Kerala in bovines, which is often considered as a simple control method for Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis (BGC) and might be one of the factors that prevented extensive spread of C. foetus spp. infection.
Keywords: Campylobacteriosis, Campylobacter foetus, Bovine abortion, Polymerase Chain Reaction, real time PCR, and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.