Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

Volume: 54 Issue: 4

  • Open Access
  • Research Article

A comprehensive study on effect of electrical stimulation on biophysical and biochemical parameters of spent hen meat using discriminant function analysis

C. O. Vinayananda1*, R. Narendra Babu2, V. Appa Rao3, A. Kalaikannan4, K. Vijayarani5 S. Ramesh6 and Serma Saravana Pandian7

1#Department of Livestock Products Technology (Meat Science), Madras Veterinary College, TANUVAS, Chennai-07, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Livestock Products Technology (Meat Science), Madras Veterinary College, TANUVAS, Chennai-07, Tamil Nadu, India 3 Directorate of Extension Education, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai - 600051.Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Livestock Products Technology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Orathanadu, Thanjavur-614625, Tamil Nadu., Thanjavur-03, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Director of Research, TANUVAS, Chennai-07, Tamil Nadu, India
Department of Veterinary Pathology Madras Veterinary College, Chennai – 600 007, TANUVAS, Chennai-07, Tamil Nadu, India
7 Dept. of Animal Husbandry Economics, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, TANUVAS, Chennai-07, Tamil Nadu, India

*Corresponding author: [email protected], Ph. +91 81470 05804

Year: 2023, Page: 944-957, Doi:

Received: March 13, 2023 Accepted: Aug. 22, 2023 Published: Dec. 31, 2023


The objective of this study was to assess the effect of electrical stimulation (ES) on breast and thigh muscles in spent hen. A total of 24 spent hens (White Leghorn) were slaughtered and split into two halves, each half was either treated with postmortem ES (150V) or was used as a non-stimulated (NS) control. Breast and thigh muscles were excised and analysed for biophysical, colour and sensory qualities after ageing for 24 h at 4 ± 1 ˚C. Biochemical parameters were recorded immediately (0h) and after 24h of ES. Biophysical parameters like water holding capacity (WHC), protein extractability, shear force value (SFV) and myofibre fragmentation index (MFI) of both types of muscles varied significantly with ES. Electrical stimulation significantly reduced the pH and glycogen content in both muscles and the thigh muscle showed a significantly higher pH and lower glycogen content than the breast muscle. No significance difference in metabolic rate (R-value) was observed between ES and NS thigh at 24 h. ES had no significant effect on colour and ES significantly improved the sensory value of both breast and thigh muscle. Canonical discriminant and Mahalanobis distance (D2) analysis of biophysical and biochemical parameters demonstrated that the effect of electrical stimulation was comparatively more in thigh muscle than breast with an ageing period of 24 h.

Keywords: Electrical stimulation, spenthen, discriminant analysis, physicochemical properties


Adeyemi, K.D. and Sazili, A.Q. 2014. Efficacy of carcass electrical stimulation in meat quality enhancement: A review. Asian- Australas J Anim. Sci. 27(3): 447.

Agbeniga, B. and Webb, E.C. 2014. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of Kosher and conventionally slaughtered cattle. S. Afr. J. Anim. 44(5):58-63.

Alvarado, C.Z. and Sams, A.R. 2000. The influence of postmortem electrical stimulation on rigor mortis development, calpastatin activity, and tenderness in broiler and duck pectoralis. Poult. Sci. 79(9):1364-1368.

Alves, L.L., Rampelotto, C., Silva, M.S., De Moura, H.C., Durante, E.C., Mello, R.O., Menezes, C.R., Barin, J.S., Campagnol, P.C.B. and Cichoski, A.J. 2018. The effect of cold storage on physicochemical and microbiological properties of beef Semitendinosus muscle subjected to ultrasonic treatment in different systems (bath or probe). Int. Food Res. J. 25(2):504-514.

Archile-Contreras, A.C., Cha, M.C., Mandell, I.B., Miller, S.P. and Purslow, P. P. 2011. Vitamins E and C may increase collagen turnover by intramuscular fibroblasts. Potential for improved meat quality. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59(2):608-614.

Barekat, S. and Soltanizadeh, N. 2017. Improvement of meat tenderness by simultaneous alication of highintensity ultrasonic radiation and papain treatment.Innov.Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 39:223-229.

Barker, S.B. and Summerson, W.H. 1941. The colourimetric determination of lactic acid in biological material.J. Biol. Chem.138:535-554.

Birkhold, S.G. and Sams, A.R. 1993. Fragmentation, tenderness, and postmortem metabolism of early-harvested broiler breast fillets from carcasses treated with electrical stimulation and muscle tensioning. Poult. Sci. 72(3):577- 582.

Bowker, B. and Zhuang, H. 2015. Relationship between water-holding capacity and protein denaturation in broiler breast meat. Poult. Sci. 94(7):1657-1664.

Calkins, C.R. and Sullivan, G. 2007. Adding enzymes to improve beef tenderness. Beef facts product enhancement, National cattleman’s beef association. Centennial Colourado: Cattlemen’s Beef Board.

Choe, J.H., Choi, Y.M., Lee, S.H., Shin, H.G., Ryu, Y.C., Hong, K.C. and Kim, B.C. 2008. The relation between glycogen, lactate content and muscle fiber type composition, and their influence on postmortem glycolytic rate and pork quality. Meat Sci. 80(2): 355-362.

Choi, Y.M. and Kim, B.C. 2009. Muscle fiber characteristics, myofibrillar protein isoforms, and meat quality. Livestock Sci.122(2-3):105-118.

DAHDF [Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Fisheries]. 2017. National Action Plans focusing on various subsectors of India’s dynamic livestock industry, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Government of India. 34p DAHDF [ Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisherie]s . 2019. Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers, Welfare, Government of India.47p.

Davis, G.W., Dutson, T.R., Smith, G.C. and Carpenter, Z.L. 1980. Fragmentation procedure for bovine longissimus muscle as an index of cooked steak tenderness.J. Food Sci. 45(4):880-884.

Dhital, S. and Vangnai, K. 2019. Meat tenderisationeffect of protease from mango peel crude extract. Int. Food Res. J. 26(3):991-998.

Dickens, J.A., Lyon, C.E. and Buhr, R.J. 2002. The effects of electrical stimulation during bleeding on shear values and cook loss of breast fillets from mature chickens deboned at two or twenty-four hours post-evisceration. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 11(1):111-116.

Fernandez, X., Lefaucheur, L. and Čandek, M. 1995. Comparative study of two classifications of muscle fibres: consequences for the photometric determination of glycogen according to fibre type in red and white muscle of the pig. Meat Sci.41(2):225-235.

George, A.R., Bendall, J.R. and Jones, R.C.D. 1980. The tenderising effect of electrical stimulation of beef carcasses. Meat Sci. 4(1):51-68.

Glancy, B. and Balaban, R.S., 2011.Protein composition and function of red and white skeletal muscle mitochondria. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 300(6);1280-1290.

Grau, R. and Hamm, R. 1953. Eineeinfachemethodezurbestimmung der wasserbindungimmuskel. Naturwissenschaften, 40(1):29-30.

Greaser, M. L. 1986. Conversion of muscle to meat. In: Bechtel, P.J.(ed). Muscle as food. Academic press, Orlando, USA, pp. 37-102.

Honikel, K.O. and Fischer, C. 1977. A rapid method for the detection of PSE and DFD porcine muscles. J. Food Sci. 42(6):1633-1636.

Hunt, M.C., Acton, J.C., Benedict, R.C., Calkins, C.R., Cornforth, D.P., Jeremiah, L.E., Olson, D.G., Salm, C.P., Savell, J.W. and Shivas, S.D. 1991. Guidelines for meat colour evaluation. In 44th Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference ( 9-12). National Livestock and Meat Board Chicago, Ill.

Indumathi, J., Shashikumar, M., Reddy, G.V.B., Babu, A.J. and Prakash, M.G. 2019. Utilization of spent broiler breeder hen meat to develop value added sausages. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Al. Sci. 8(12):754- 765.

Jama, N., Muchenje, V., Chimonyo, M., Strydom, P.E., Dzama, K. and Raats, J.G. 2008. Cooking loss components of beef from Nguni, Bonsmara and Angus steers. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 3(6):416-420.

Janz, J.A.M., Aalhus, J.L. and Price, M.A. 2001. Blast chilling and low voltage electrical stimulation influences on bison (Bison bison bison) meat quality. Meat Sci. 57(4):403-411.

Jaturasitha, S., Srikanchai, T., Kreuzer, M. and Wicke, M. 2008.Differences in carcass and meat characteristics between chicken indigenous to northern Thailand (Black-boned and Thai native) and imported extensive breeds (Bresse and Rhode Island Red).Poult. Sci. 87(1):160- 169.

Jeon, H.J., Choe, J.H., Jung, Y.K., Kruk, Z.A., Lim, D.G. and Jo, C.R. 2010. Comparison of the chemical composition, textural characteristics, and sensory properties of North and South Korean native chickens and commercial broilers. Food Sci. Anim. Resour. 30(2):171-178.

Joo, S.T., Kauffman, R.G., Kim, B.C. and Park, G.B. 1999. The relationship of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility to colour and water-holding capacity in porcine longissimus muscle. Meat Sci. 52(3):291-297.

Kadıoğlu, P., Karakaya, M., Unal, K. and Babaoğlu, A.S. 2019.Technological and textural properties of spent chicken breast, drumstick and thigh meats as affected by marinating with pineale fruit juice.BritishPoult. Sci. 60(4):381-387.

Kahraman, T., Bayraktaroglu, A.G., Vural, A., Issa, G. and Ergun, E.M.E.L. 2011. Electron microscopy of contractile bands and quality characteristics in high-voltage electrical stimulation broiler breast meat.Poult. Sci. 90(2):486-490.

Karakayain, M. and Ünal, M.K. 2015.Effect of sonication time on technological and emulsification properties of spent chicken breast and thigh meat.Fleischwirtschaft international: J Meat Prod.Meat Proces. 1:86-90.

Kim, Y.H.B., Warner, R.D. and Rosenvold, K. 2014. Influence of high pre-rigor temperature and fast pH fall on muscle proteins and meat quality: a review. Anim. Prod. Sci.,54(4):375-395.

Lan, Y.H., Novakofski, J., Carr, T.R. and McKeith, F.K. 1993. Assay and storage conditions affect yield of salt soluble protein from muscle. J. Food Sci. 58(5), .963-967.

Lawrie, R.A. 1991. Meat Science (5th Ed). Pergamon Press, New York, 60p Lee, S.O., Min, J.S., Kim, I.S. and Lee, M. 2003. Physical evaluation of poed cereal snacks with spent hen meat. Meat Sci.64(4):383-390.

Li, C.B., Chen, Y.J., Xu, X.L., Huang, M., Hu, T.J. and Zhou, G.H. 2006. Effects of lowvoltage electrical stimulation and rapid chilling on meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls.Meat Sci.72(1):9-17.

Liu, Y.O.N.G.L.I.A.N.G., Lyon, B.G., Windham, W.R., Lyon, C.E. and Savage, E.M. 2004. Principal component analysis of physical, colour, and sensory characteristics of chicken breasts deboned at two, four, six, and twenty-four hours postmortem. Poult. Sci. 83(1):101-108.

Lowe, T.E., Devine, C.E., Wells, R.W. and Lynch, L.L. 2004. The relationship between postmortem urinary catecholamines, meat ultimate pH, and shear force in bulls and cows.Meat Sci. 67(2):251- 260.

Mancini, S., Preziuso, G., Dal Bosco, A., Roscini, V., Szendrő, Z., Fratini, F. and Paci, G. 2015.Effect of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) and ascorbic acid on physical characteristics and oxidative status of fresh and stored rabbit burgers. Meat Sci. 110:93-100.

McKee, S.R. and Sams, A.R. 1998. Rigor mortis development at elevated temperatures induces pale exudative turkey meat characteristics. Poult. Sci. 77(1):169- 174.

Mendel, B., Kemp, A. and Van Heijningen, A.J.K. 1954. A colourimetric micro-method for the determination of glycogen in tissues. Biochem. J. 56(4):646.

Mir, N.A., Rafiq, A., Kumar, F., Singh, V. and Shukla, V. 2017. Determinants of broiler chicken meat quality and factors affecting them: a review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 54:2997-3009.

Naveena, B.M., Kiran, M., Reddy, K.S., Ramakrishna, C., Vaithiyanathan, S. and Devatkal, S.K. 2011. Effect of ammonium hydroxide on ultrastructure and tenderness of buffalo meat.Meat Sci. 88(4):727-732.

Navid, S., Sheikhlar, A. and Kaveh, K. 2011. Influence of the combination of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf on meat quality of spent layer hen. Agric. J .6:197-200.

Olson, D.G. and Stromer, M.H. 1976. Myofibril fragmentation and shear resistance of three bovine muscles during postmortem storage. J. Food Sci. 41(5):1036-1041.

Owens, C.M. and Sams, A.R.. 1998. Meat quality of broiler breast meat following post-mortem electrical stimulation at the neck.Poult. Sci. 77(9):1451-1454.

Papinaho, P.A., Ruusunen, M.H., Suuronen, T. and Fletcher, D.L. 1996.Relationship between muscle biochemical and meat quality properties of early deboned broiler breasts.J. AliedPoult. Res. 5(2):126-133.

Rodas-González, A., Pflanzer, S.B., Garmyn, A.J., Martin, J.N., Brooks, J.C., Knobel, S.M., Johnson, B.J., Starkey, J.D., Rathmann, R.J., De Felicio, P.E. and Streeter, M.N. 2012. Effects of postmortem calcium chloride injection on meat palatability traits of strip loin steaks from cattle sulemented with or without zilpaterol hydrochloride.J. Anim. Sci. 90(10):3584-3595.

Rosario, M.F., Silva, M.A.N., Coelho, A.A.D., Savino, V.J.M. and Dias C.T. 2008. Canonical discriminant analysis alied to broiler chicken performance.Animal, 2(3):419-424.

Roy, B.C., Oshima, I., Miyachi, H., Shiba, N., Nishimura, S., Tabata, S. and Iwamoto, H. 2006. Effects of nutritional level on muscle development, histochemical properties of myofibre and collagen architecture in the pectoralis muscle of male broilers. British Poult. Sci. 47(4):433-442.

Ryu, Y.C., Choi, Y.M. and Kim, B.C. 2005. Variations in metabolite contents and protein denaturation of the longissimusdorsi muscle in various porcine quality classifications and metabolic rates. Meat Sci. 71(3):522- 529.

Sams, A.L.A.N. 1999. Commercial implementation of postmortem electrical stimulation.Poult. Sci. 78(2):290-294.

Sams, A.R. and Dzuik, C.S. 1999. Meat quality and rigor mortis development in broiler chickens with gas-induced anoxia and postmortem electrical stimulation.Poult. Sci. 78(10):1472-1476.

Sams, A.R., Janky, D.M. and Dukes, M.G. 1992. Research note: anatomical location of alication influences the tenderizing effectiveness of electrical stimulation of broiler carcasses. Poult. Sci. 71(9):1564- 1567.

Sharma, G. 2017. Colour fundamentals for digital imaging.In Digital colour imaging handbook. CRC press 114p.

Šulcerová, H., Mihok, M., Jůzl, M. and Haščík, P. 2011.Effect of addition of pollen and propolis to feeding mixtures during the production of broiler chickens ROSS 308 to the colour of thigh and breast muscle and pH determination. Acta Univ. Agric. et Silvic, 59(6):359-366.

Suriani, N.W., Purnomo, H., Estiasih, T. and Suwetja, I.K. 2014. Physicochemical properties, fatty acids profile and cholesterol content of indigenous manado chicken, broiler and spent hen meat. Int. J. Chemtech Res. 6(7):3896- 3902.

Troutt, E.S., Hunt, M.C., Johnson, D.E., Claus, J.R., Kastner, C.L., Kropf, D.H. and Stroda, S. 1992. Chemical, physical, and sensory characterization of ground beef containing 5 to 30 per cent fat. J. Food Sci. 57(1):25-29.

Tůmová, E. and Teimouri, A. 2009. Chicken muscle fibres characteristics and meat quality: a review. Sci. Agric. Bohem, 40(4):253-258.

Walker, L.T., Birkhold, S.G., Kang, I.S., Hirschler, E.M. and Sams, A.R. 1996. The effects of post-mortem electrical stimulation and muscle tensioning in two broiler muscles.Poult. Sci.,75(9):1118- 1120.

Walker, L.T., Shackelford, S.D., Birkhold, S.G. and Sams, A.R. 1995.Biochemical and structural effects of rigor mortisaccelerating treatments in broiler Pectoralis. Poult. Sci.,74(1):176-186.

Warriss P.D. 2010. Meat Science (2nd Ed) Cambridge, UK,pp. 1-12 Wattanachant, S., Benjakul, S. and

Ledward, D.A. 2004. Composition, colour, and texture of Thai indigenous and broiler chicken muscles.Poult. Sci. 83(1):123- 128.

Wheeler, T.L., Shackelford, S.D., Johnson, L.P., Miller, M.F., Miller, R.K. and Koohmaraie, M. 1997. A comparison of Warner- Bratzler shear force assessment within and among institutions. J. Anim. Sci. 75(9):2423-2432.

Young, L.L., Cason, J.A., Smith, D.P., Lyon, C.E., Dickens, J.A. and Walker, J.M. 2005. Effects of electrical stimulation and simulated conventional and extended chilling method on cooked chicken breast meat texture and yield. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 4(2):60-63.

Yu, L.H., Lee, E.S., Jeong, J.Y., Paik, H.D., Choi, J.H. and Kim, C.J. 2005. Effects of thawing temperature on the physicochemical properties of pre-rigor frozen chicken breast and leg muscles. Meat Sci.71(2):375-382.

Cite this article

Vinayananda, C.O., Narendra Babu, R., Rao, V.A., Kalaikannan, A., Vijayarani, K., Ramesh, S., Pandian, S.S. 2023. A comprehensive study on effect of electrical stimulation on biophysical and biochemical parameters of spent hen meat using discriminant function analysis. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 54(4):944-957