Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

Volume: 54 Issue: 4

  • Open Access
  • Research Article

Antibiogram of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from cases of neonatal calf diarrhoea in Kerala#

Saritha Baby1, Chintu Ravishankar2*, Koshy John3, M. Mini4, S. Ajithkumar5 and P. Vinu David

#Part of PhD. thesis submitted by the first author to the Kerala Veterinary Animal Sciences University, Pookode, Wayanad.

1 PhD. scholar
2 Professor
3 Professor and Head
4 Senior Professor and Head
5 Professor and Head, Dept. of Veterinary Clinical Medicine
6 Associate Professor, Dept. of Veterinary Clinical Medicine

*Corresponding author: [email protected], Ph. 9447716620, 8301816720

Year: 2023, Page: 927-933, Doi:

Received: Dec. 22, 2022 Accepted: March 28, 2023 Published: Dec. 31, 2023


A study was conducted to determine the antibiogram of Escherichia coli isolated from cases of neonatal calf diarrhoea in Thrissur and Wayanad districts of Kerala. A total of 101 isolates were tested for susceptibility against 12 antibiotics. The antibiotics to which the isolates were most susceptible were Streptomycin (49.51%) and Chloramphenicol (47%). The isolates showed varying degrees of susceptibility to the other antibiotics tested such as Enrofloxacin (8.92%), Ciprofloxacin (15.85%), Gentamicin (23.77%), Tetracycline (20.8%), Amoxicillin/sulbactam (8.92%), Co-trimoxazole (20.8%), and Nitrofuratonin (25.75%). All the isolates were resistant to Cefpodoxime, Penicillin G and Cefotaxime/Clavulanic acid. Many of the isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant which has serious implications for the control of these infections through antibiotic therapy.

Keywords: Antibiogram, Escherichia coli, neonatal calf diarrhoea, multi-drug resistance


Abubaker, A., Ayis, E.I., Ali, A., Elgaddal, Y. and Almofti, A. 2015. Isolation, identification and enterotoxin detection of Escherichia coli isolated from calf diarrhoea and their virulence characteristics. J. Appl. Ind. Sci. 3(4): 141-149.

Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M., Sherris, J.C. and Turck, M. 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45: 493- 496.

Berge, A.C., Moore, D.A., Besser, T.E. and Sischo, W.M. 2009. Targeting therapy to minimize antimicrobial use in preweaned calves: Effects on health, growth, and treatment costs. J. Dairy Sci. 92: 4707–4714.

Chowdhury, M. and Das, R. 2003. Incidence of drug resistance in E. coli strain in West Bengal. Indian Vet. J. 80(1): 81-82. Constable, P.D. 2004. Antimicrobial use in the treatment of calf diarrhoea. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 18: 8-17.

Constable, P.D. 2009. Treatment of calf diarrhoea: Antimicrobial and ancillary treatments. Vet. Clin. Food Anim. 25: 101-120.

FAO/WHO/OIE (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organisation/ Office International des Epizooties) 2007. Report of the Joint FAO/WHO/ OIE expert meeting on critically important antimicrobials. Rome, Italy. November 26–30, 2007. http://www. Reportpercent20jointpercent20CIAper cent20Meeting.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2008.

Gulliksen, S.M., Lie, K.I., Loken, T. and Osteras, O. 2009. Enteropathogens and risk factors for diarrhoea in Norwegian dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 92: 5057-5066.

Gupta, D.K., Shukla, S.K., Rajora, V.S. and Nag, L.K. 2006. Prevalence of E. coli in the neonatal diarrhoeic calves. Indian J. Vet. Med. 26(1): 36-37.

Hammerum, A.M., and O.E. Heuer. 2009. Human health hazards from antimicrobialresistant Escherichia coli of animal origin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: 916-921.

Izzo, M.M., Kirkland, P.D., Mohler, V.L., Perkins, N.R., Gunna, A.A. and Housea, J.K. 2011. Prevalence of major enteric pathogens in Australian dairy calves with diarrhoea. Aust. Vet. J. 89: 167-173.

Kadam, A.S., Tembhurne, P.A. and Ingle, V.C. 2018. Bacterial profiling from the bovine calves’s diarrhoea and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern around Chandrapur district in Maharashtra. 2018. Int. J. Sci. Envir. Technol. 7(6): 2019-2025.

Kumar, B., Shekhar, P. and Kumar, N. 2010. A clinical study on neonatal calf diarrhoea. Intas Polivet 11(II): 233-235.

Malik, S., Kumar, A., Verma, A.K., Gupta, M.K., Sharma, S.D., Sharma, A.K.and Rahal, A. 2013. Incidence and drug resistance pattern of colibacillosis in cattle and buffalo calves in western Utter Pradesh in India. J. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 1(2): 15-19.

Malik, S., Verma, A.K., Kumar, A., Gupta, M.K. and Sharma, S.D. 2012. Incidence of calf diarrhoea in cattle and buffalo calves in Uttar Pradesh, India. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 7: 1049-1054.

Manickam, R. and Ponnusamy, P. 2017. Bacterial species isolated from diarrhoeic calves and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Int. J. Sci. Envir. Technol. 6 (4): 2202-2211.

Meganck, V., Hoflack, G. and Opsomer, G. Advances in prevention and therapy of neonatal dairy calf diarrhoea. 2014. A systematical review with emphasis on colostrum management and fluid therapy. Acta. Vet. Scand. 56: 75.

Navade, R.B., Bhalerao, D.P. and Jagdish. 2000. Neonatal calf diarrhoea - Serotyping of E. coli isolates. Indian Vet. J. 77 (9): 815- 816.

Pereira, R.V.V., Santos, T.M.A., Bicalho, M.L., Caixeta, L.S., Machado, V.S. and Bicalho, R.C. 2011. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of virulence factor genes in faecal Escherichia coli of Holstein calves fed milk with and without antimicrobials. J. Dairy Sci. 94: 4556-4565.

Quinn, P.J., Carter, M.E., Markey, B. and Carter, G.R. 1994. Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, Wolfe, 648p.

Razzaque, M.A., Scharp, D., Al-Mutawa, T., Al-Muhanna, M., Abbas, S., Shalabi, A., El-Sawy, E., Al-Awadhi, A., Mulla, F. and El-Sanousi, A. 2001. Field and laboratory investigation of calf mortality in Kuwait and its economic impact on dairy production. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Report No. KISR6004,

Kuwait. Rehman, M.U., Rashid, M., Sheikh, J.A., Wani, S.A. and Farooq, S. 2014. Multi-drug resistance among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from bovines and their handlers in Jammu region, India. Vet. Wld. 6(9): 655-658.

Shahrani, M., Dehkordi, F.S. and Momtaz, H. 2014. Characterization of Escherichia coli virulence genes, pathotypes and antibiotic resistance properties in diarrheic calves in Iran. Biol. Res. 47: 28.

Srivani, M., Reddy, Y.N., Subramanyam, K.V., Reddy, M.R. and Srinivasa Rao T. 2017. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli in diarrheic buffalo calves. Vet. Wld. 10(7): 774-778.

Svensson, C., Hultgren, J. and Oltenacu, P.A. 2006. Morbidity in 3–7-month-old dairy calves in south-western Sweden, and risk factors for diarrhoea and respiratory disease. Prev. Vet. Med. 74: 162–179.

Tarekegn, Y. and Molla, F.W. 2017. The Prevalence of E. coli from diarrheic calves and their antibiotic sensitivity test in selected dairy farms of Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Adv. Biotech. Micro. 6(1): 12- 22.

USDA-APHIS (United States Department of Agriculture-Animal Plant Health Inspection Service) 2008. Antimicrobial use on US dairy operations, 2002 and 2007. N534.1008. USDA, Fort Collins, CO.

Van den Bogaard, A.E. and Stobberingh, E.E. 2000. Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics. links between animals and humans. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 14: 327-335.

Wagner, R.D., Johnson, S.J. and Cerniglia, C.E. 2008. In vitro model of colonization resistance by the enteric microbiota: effects of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52: 1230-1237.

Windeyer, M.C., Leslie, K.E., Godden, S.M., Hodgins, D.C., Lissemore, K.D and LeBlanc, S.J. 2014. Factors associated with morbidity, mortality, and growth of dairy heifer calves up to 3 months of age. Prev. Vet. Med. 113: 231-240.

Wu, G., Mafura, M., Carter, B., Lynch, K., Anjum, M. F., Woodward, M.J. and Pritchard, G.C. 2010. Genes associated with Escherichia coli isolates from calves with diarrhoea and/or septicaemia. Vet. Rec. 166: 691-692.

Cite this article

Baby, S., Ravishankar, C., John, K., Mini, M., Ajithkumar, S. and David, P.V. 2023. Antibiogram of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from cases of neonatal calf diarrhoea in Kerala. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 54(4):927-933