Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

Volume: 54 Issue: 4

  • Open Access
  • Research Article

Whelping prediction using foetal heart rate variations and umbilical artery resistivity index in late gestation

Rinu Thomas1, C. Jayakumar 2*, K. Magnus Paul, Amritha Aravind4 and V.L.Gleeja5

1. MVSc Scholar, Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology and Obstetrics College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur- 680 651, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala, India
2. Associate Professor and Head, Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology and Obstetrics College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur- 680 651, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala, India
3. Associate Professor,  Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology and Obstetrics College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur- 680 651, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala, India
4. Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology and Obstetrics , College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur- 680 651 , Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala, India
5. Associate Professor and Head, Department of Statistics, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur- 680 651 , Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala, India


*Corresponding author: [email protected], Ph. 9447476054

Year: 2023, Page: 1000-1004, Doi: https://doi.org/10.51966/jvas.2023.54.4.1000-1004

Received: April 5, 2023 Accepted: Aug. 18, 2023 Published: Dec. 31, 2023

Abstract

The present study aimed to compare foetal heart rate (FHR) variations and umbilical artery resistivity index (RI) in late gestation for whelping prediction. Six pregnant bitches with at least three foetuses were selected for the study and the FHR variations and umbilical RI were evaluated in the last three days, ie., -3d (72-48h), -2d (48-24h) and -1d (24-12h) before whelping. The mean FHR decreased and the gradient between maximum and minimum heart rate increased as whelping approached. The physiological oscillations in FHR were inconsistent in the dogs studied and only evident in a few foetuses during 72-48h before whelping and occurred in the majority of foetuses at 24-12h before whelping. The FHR variation progressively increased and the mean umbilical artery RI decreased as gestation advanced. 50 per cent of dogs showed an umbilical RI value less than 0.7 in all three foetuses during 24-12h before whelping. Even though both these parameters when used alone were not accurate enough for whelping prediction, the sonographic detection of the decrease in the umbilical artery RI and the increased FHR variations in the majority of foetus indicated the imminence of whelping

Keywords: Whelping prediction, FHR variations, umbilical artery RI

References

Blanco, P.G., Arias, D.O. and Gobello, C. 2008. Doppler ultrasound in canine pregnancy. J. Ultrasound Med. 27: 1745-1750.

Di Salvo, P., Bocci, F., Zelli, R. and Polisca, A. 2006. Doppler evaluation of maternal and fetal vessels during normal gestation in the bitch. Res. Vet. Sci81: 382-388.

Frasch, M.G., Muller, T., Wicher, C., Weiss, C., Lohle, M., Schwab, K., Schubert,H., Nathanielsz, P.W., Witte, O.W. and Schwab, M. 2007. Foetal body weight and the development of the control of the cardiovascular system in foetal sheep. J. Physiol. 579: 893-907.

Gaikwad, S.M., Gulavane, S.U., Kumbhar, U.B., Shelar, R.R., Chaudhari, R.J. and Ribeiro, R.A. 2020. Doppler evaluation of maternal vessels in normal gestation and threatened abortion in canines. Ir. Vet. J. 73: 1-9.

Giannico, A.T., Gil, E.M.U., Garcia, D.A.A. and Froes, T.R. 2015. The use of Doppler evaluation of the canine umbilical artery in prediction of delivery time and fetal distress. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 154: 105-112.

Giannico, A.T., Garcia, D.A.A., Gil, E.M.U., Sousa, M.G. and Froes, T.R. 2016. Assessment of umbilical artery flow and fetal heart rate to predict delivery time in bitches. Theriogenology. 86: 1654-1661.

Gil, E.M.U., Garcia, D.A.A., Giannico, A.T. and Froes, T.R. 2014. Canine fetal heart rate: do accelerations or decelerations predict the parturition day in bitches?. Theriogenology. 82: 933-941.

Miranda, S.A. and Domingues, S.F.S. 2010. Conceptus ecobiometry and triplex Doppler ultrasonography of uterine and umbilical arteries for assessment of fetal viability in dogs. Theriogenology. 74: 608-617.

Nyland, T.G. and Mattoon, J.S. 2002. Small animal diagnostic ultrasound. Saunders, Elsevier health sciences. St. Louis, Missouri. 124p.

Smith, F.O. 2007. Challenges in small animal parturition--timing elective and emergency cesarian sections. Theriogenology. 68: 348-353.

Cite this article

Thomas, R., Jayakumar, C., Paul, K.M., Aravind, A. and Gleeja, V.L. 2023. Whelping prediction using foetal heart rate variations and umbilical artery resistivity index in late gestation. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 54(4):1000-1004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51966/jvas.2023.54.4.1000-1004

Views
70
Downloads
27
Citations