Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

Volume: 55 Issue: 1

  • Open Access
  • Research Article

The impact of various protein concentrations in total mixed ration on rumen fermentation and haematobiochemical indicators in Vechur cattle

Gopika Thampi1, K. Jasmine Rani2*, K. Ally1, Surej Joseph Bunglavan3 and Elizabeth Kurian4

1. Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Mannuthy, Thrissur- 680 651

2. Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookode

3. University Livestock Farm and Fodder Research and Development Scheme, Mannuthy

4. Centre for Pig Production and Research, Mannuthy

Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Kerala, India

*Corresponding author: [email protected], Ph. 9387091476

Year: 2024, Page: 94-102, Doi:

Received: Oct. 4, 2023 Accepted: Nov. 20, 2023 Published: March 31, 2024


A feeding trial of four months duration was carried out in Vechur cattle to analyse the impact of various protein concentrations in total mixed ration on rumen fermentation and haematobiochemical parameters. Fifteen Vechur cattle between the ages of six and ten months were chosen from Vechur Cattle Conservation Unit, Mannuthy and were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments, T1 – Total mixed ration containing 16 per cent CP and 60 per cent TDN, T2 – Total mixed ration containing 14 per cent CP and 60 per cent TDN and T3 – Total mixed ration containing 12 per cent CP and 60 per cent TDN. All the dietary treatments were isocaloric. Rumen fermentation parameters such as rumen pH and total volatile fatty acid did not show any significant difference among the treatment groups, whereas rumen ammonia nitrogen was significantly higher (P<0.01) in T1, compared to T2 and T3. The mean per cent of methane emission levels were similar among the treatment groups. The haemato-biochemical parameters were analysed at the beginning and at monthly interval and the values were comparable among the treatment groups. But the BUN concentration was higher in T1 compared to T2 and T3 (P<0.01). Therefore, it could be resolved that Vechur cattle can be reared on TMR containing 12 per cent CP and 60 per cent TDN without any negative effects on the health of animals.

Keywords: Vechur cattle, total mixed ration, protein, haemato-biochemical parameters


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Cite this article

Thampi, G., Rani, J.K., Ally, K., Bunglavan, S.J. and Kurian, E. 2024. The impact of various protein concentrations in total mixed ration on rumen fermentation and haemato-biochemical indicators in Vechur cattle. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 55(1):94-102 DOI: